Faced with a problem of the fragile link between the set of pedagogical qualifications and certifications of the education and training system and the professional profiles required by the world of work, it is necessary that this link be strengthened much more to make training courses more attractive. to make them more consuming the qualifications and skills achieved.
Like other European countries, it is necessary for Italy to fill this gap between skills and certifications that come from education systems and competency profiles required by the world of professions. This distance can increase student motivation and leave school.
An important element of reflection is that it is no longer possible to keep the school obligation at 16, an age of heavy employment, so it would be appropriate to link the question of the definitive age of the obligation to the completion of a training. providing young people with both immediately applicable qualifications and adequate basic skills.
As far as the system of connection between training skills and the world of work is concerned, there is an interesting trend represented by vocational training entrusted to the regions, which constitutes a narrower training channel between the training and the world of work. Nevertheless, the system of vocational training should be strengthened and better qualified, precisely because it provides both an educational opportunity for the fragile and / or disadvantaged children, to benefit from an apprenticeship and a later job, both for a more professional and closer education sector to the world of work. In addition, it offers the opportunity to make changes between the state education system and vocational training, giving the boy the opportunity to re-enter the state system and continue his studies.
“We need the connection between certifications, acquisition of Skills and introduction to the world of work “.
A great resource and training opportunity, which favors and currently creates a great connection with the world of work, consists in the existence of higher technical institutions, which represent a very innovative way, even if you take into account the technological fields in which they two- Build years of education. Offer, and extremely qualifying, characterized by the co-planning between training institutes and production sectors that are fully involved in the ITS fundamentals.
The statistics show very high employment rates for students leaving ITS courses (about 84%), which proves the great resource in terms of the use of the skills offered by these institutions. These are realities that better and faster catalyze changes in the labor market and shape their training based on the needs that are ever-present and therefore more usable in the world of production. ITS represents one of the most relevant viaticum at the moment, in terms of training offerings extremely close to the world of work. This line of training has been greatly strengthened in recent years, so that the opportunities for connecting with university courses are also prepared for those who wish to continue their education.
In the face of ever-changing training needs and the need to possess skills that are closer to the professions of the future, it is urgent to bring the education system closer to the world of work, adopt a logic of continuing education, and formally in informal contexts, primarily for the purpose of asking students the ability to “learn to learn”.
The assessment of the competences of the students in the ways that are also carried out outside the institutional system should be better organized and strictly prepared so that the skills actually acquired are validated and certified for them to make it useful and useful in the world of work. All this requires a less rigid system, but which still guarantees the quality of the completed training courses and the effective possession of the competent certified skills.
As regards the models and approaches to training and professionalisation, the decree of 15 April 2005, n. 77 introduced a didactic methodology known as school-work alternation, which still represents an opportunity to learn outside the school walls, to develop the skills in the acquisition baggage of the student, who in this way benefits from new contexts and new Ways to learn. Immediately, however, there was also some confusion about the identity and nature of school-work diversion, too often exchanged with those who instead have proper working conditions, such as jobs and teaching positions, to whom they should have adequate remuneration and protection, not to be confused with the ASL which is and remains a teaching methodology which is carried out under the responsibility of the school. On the occasion of the General States’ deliberations on the diversion of school work in December 2017, in the presence of the representation of the various subjects, the roles, functions, responsibilities, supervision of the performance places were more clearly regulated , such as students’ rights and obligations, later merged into the specific charter. In 2015, Law 107 made the compulsory education compulsory for all courses (including high schools) and extended it to the entire national territory, while it was initially used mostly in the north, recognizing its didactic importance.
This teaching methodology is and remains a great learning opportunity, in innovative and experiential terms, it calls for the acquisition of life skills in a transversal way, but it still remains a teaching method in the pedagogical way. Unfortunately, the subsequent legislative change that transformed it into PCTO (Pathways for Transversal Skills and Orientation) changed its nature and its triple training, orientation and professionalization function, more clearly in Decree 77 of its birth and lost, if not distorted, with this passage.
A reassessment of the ASL seems more necessary than ever, with a view to a full harmonization of it in the formations, for a better and more efficient acquisition of competencies, also from a European perspective.
“It’s essential to have harmonized training courses.”
Perfecting these learning methodologies means that they return all their value to their learning function, so that they are not confused with an early form of work or seen as time out of a more traditional teaching and instead finally have a real opportunity to exhibit experimental learning. , which increases students’ skills and enables them to see their study path closer to reality in the world of work, with a return also in terms of motivation and sense of self-confidence.
Finally, a profound reflection should be made on the impact of the pandemic on the psychological well-being of students and on the pedagogical impact. Provided that the hope of a full return to the “normality” of life is a generalized desire, it must not mean a removal of experience, which should instead be capitalized, from the beginning to a serious process of the establishment of a territorial Network of services, built around children, families, school staff, which not only provide effective support to the school and its population, which not only allows a significant demand for the care of the younger generations, who are psychologically affected by the pandemic be, to greet and take over. that it will build a real and real Educational community which surround and support the world of school and development age. The psychological bonus, now to the legislator’s attention, can be a first step; however, the path taken is represented by a capillary territorial institutionalization of the care network.
Curated by Angela Ferraro and Olga Naples