Tribal ordinary competition, what to study the A020 ​​physics competition class?

How to prepare Ordinary secondary competition for tribal disciplineswhich has just Terms re-opened?

The programs are established by decree of the head of the education system of education and training January 5, 2022, n. 23. A provision which then also applies in matters of programs to Annex A of the Ministry Order of 9 November 2021, n. 326.

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The Competition Program

In addition to the general part, common to all competition classes and regarding learning methodologies, school regulations, digital, psychological, pedagogical skills, etc., the candidate must also demonstrate adequate knowledge and skills regarding the following disciplinary topics:

History and Didactics of Physics

Development of scientific research in physics, with particular attention to the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, industrial revolutions and physics of the 1900s. Analysis of the content and teaching methodologies required by the National Indications and Physics Guidelines. Laboratory lessons in the teaching of physics. Preparation and execution of the main experiments of classical physics.

Physical quantities and their measurement

Scalar and vector physical quantities. Vector calculation. Dimensional equations. International system of units. Measuring instruments. Error analysis of a measure and Gaussian distribution. Significant numbers. Interaction between observer and observed system.

Mechanics of point material and rigid body

The three laws of dynamism. Kinematic and dynamic description of the motion of a material point. Supporting forces and frictional forces. Law of universal gravitation. System of material points. Stiff body.

Elements of the statics and dynamics of the rigid body. Center of Mass Reference System. Laws of conservation of energy, dynamism and angular momentum. The motion of the planets. Kepler’s Laws. Work of a force in the moment of a force. Kinetic energy of translation and rotation. Collisions in one and two dimensions. Conservative and non-conservative forces.

Static and dynamics of liquids

Definition of ideal liquids and liquids. Stevinos law. Principles of Pascal and Archimedes. Dynamics of ideal fluids: flow rate, continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem and main applications.

Reference systems and relativity

Inertial and non-inertial reference systems. Relative movements: translation; Rotation and Roto Translation.
Inertial forces. Approximation of Inertial Reference System. Galilean transformations and invariance of the laws of mechanics. Measurements of the speed of light. Michelson Morley Experiment. Minkowski’s space time. Lorentz Transformations. Simultaneity as a relative concept. Length contraction and time dilation. Relativist composition of velocity. Relativist mass and momentum. Relationship between mass and energy. Relativist Doppler effect.

Electric field and magnetic field

Concept of the field as the action of overcoming a distance. Scales and Vector Fields. The gravitational field. Electricity costs and Coulombs law. Electric field. Movement of charges in the electric field. The passage of electricity and liquids. Electrolysis. Passage of electricity and gases. Power lines and flow of electric field. Gaussian theorem. Electrical capacity and capacitors.

Magnetic field. Concepts of conservative and non-conservative fields. Flow and circulation of the magnetic field. Ampère’s Theorem. Movement of charges in a magnetic field: Lorentz force. Energy and energy density in the electric and magnetic fields. Conductors, insulators, semiconductors. Electrical circuits in direct and alternating current. Joule Effect. Microscopic interpretation of the electric current in the conduction of solids. The passage of electric current into semiconductor components.

Behavior of current carrying conductors in a magnetic field. Hall Effect. Electromagnetic induction. Variable electric and magnetic fields. The flux of the electromagnetic energy and the propagation of the electromagnetic field.

Waves and oscillations

Harmonic oscillators. Energy of the oscillator. Mechanical and electrically oscillating systems. Sound Level Units. Attenuation, forced oscillations, resonance. Waves and their spread. Doppler Effect.
Principle of superposition of waves. Fourier’s Theorem. Stationary waves.

Optics

Waves and corpuscular models of light. Reflection and refraction, thin lenses, lens composition. Main optical instruments. Optical aberrations. Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic waves.
Interpretation of wave propagation phenomena using Huygens principle.
Interference, diffraction, polarization. Maxwell’s equations. The electromagnetic spectrum.
Generation, transmission and reception of electromagnetic signals. Photometric units.

Thermodynamics

Systems with a large number of particles. Determination of the Avogadro number. Macroscopic body quantities: pressure, volume and temperature. Equations of the state of the ideal and real gases.
Thermal equilibrium and zero principle of thermodynamics. Thermal expansion of solid and liquid bodies.
Thermometer. State Transitions. Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics. Distribution of thermal energy. Heat and its measure. Specific heat. Reversible and irreversible transformations.
Carnot Cycle. Second law of thermodynamics. Entropy. The thermodynamic potentials.
Main thermal machines. Absolute thermodynamic temperature. Third law of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory of ideal gas. Brownian movement. Velocity distribution of molecules in a gas. Principle of the equipartition of energy. Entropy and probability.

Complex dynamic systems

Determinist Chaos: Logistic Map, Lorenz Model. Scale invariance, self-similarity, fractal properties.

Quantum physics

First experimental proof of the existence of atoms, Rutherford experiment. Discovery of the electron and determination of the e / m ratio. Millikan Experiment. Black body radiation and Planck’s hypothesis. Photoelectric effect and Einstein equation. The Photon. Compton Effect.

Absorption and emission spectra: atomic models, quantification of the Bohr atom and the Broglie relation. Franck and Hertz experience. Quantum physics numbers. Pauli Principle.Experience Stern and Gerlach. Zeeman Effect. Excitation and ionization of an atom. High frequency atomic radiation. X-ray spectrum Stimulated emission (laser). The Broglie Wavelength.
Diffraction of electrons. Wave functions and Schrödinger equation. Behavior of a particle in a rectangular potential well. Tunnel Effect. Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

The physics of the core and particles

Proton and Neutron. Composition of atomic nuclei: Nuclear models. Atomic Number and Mass Number. Isotopes. Nuclear stability. Natural radioactivity in radioactive families. Radioactive decay. Types of radioactivity and radiation spectra. Artificial radioactivity: nuclear reactions, cleavage, fusion. Cosmic rays. Particle accelerator. Matter and Antimatter. Pair production and annihilation. The Neutrino. Particle classification. Fundamental interactions and conservation principles. The particles of the standard model: quarks, leptons and boson mediators of interactions. Interaction of charged particles and electromagnetic radiation with matter.
Methods for detecting ionizing particles and photons. Neutron interactions with matter and detection techniques. Radiometric and dosimetric quantities. Biological effects of radiation.

The physics of stars and the universe

Methods of examination in astrophysics. Dynamics of the solar system. Thermonuclear reactions in a star. Stellar evolution. The sun. The solar system. The galaxies. General theory of relativity.
Space-time shift. Extension of clocks, distraction of light, progress perihelion of Mercury. The cosmological redshift. Models of the universe. The cosmic background radiation.

Source of energy

General principles regarding the production, transformation and transport of electricity. Conceptual scheme of conventional thermal plants and hydroelectric plants. Fission and nuclear fusion. Principle of operation of nuclear reactors. Nuclear safety and health protection.
Storage of radioactive waste. Alternative energy and energy saving problems. Energy production of photovoltaics and wind.
Knowledge of at least one programming language and the use of the main application packages (video writing, spreadsheet, video presentation) are also required.

Practice Test

The practical test consists of the measurement of one or more physical quantities, the verification of a law, or the study of a physical phenomenon. The result must be described and commented on in a specific written report.


Preparatory courses for the school competition

To prepare for the competition, take the course Guide to school regulations, according to annEX A of ordinary competition for the secondary.

To prepare you for pedagogical-didactic topics, the course will be held Basic pedagogical-didactic knowledge of the teacher, high school.

To prepare you for the subject of digital education, the e-Learning Cours New trends in education, between digital and innovationintended for Teachers of all levels.

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