School, who cares about the quality of teachers?

All school reform and improvement projects begin to emphasize the centrality of teachers, but so far it seems impossible to start a process of initial and qualification of teachers in a stable way. Giorgio Chiosso, educator and university lecturer, intervening on this topic, reconstructs the events for various paradoxical aspects of this crucial question.

The name of the Christian Democrat senator Vincenzo Bellisario (1917-1969) would probably never have entered the history of the Italian school if he did not owe him a so-called “leggina” (n. 603 of July 1966) to open one. new season in the field of Recruitment (and indirectly) of the initial training of teachers.

Against the emergency caused by the increase in enrollment in the middle school and the insufficiency of permanent teachers, the “Bellisario law” provides for the entry into and non-competitive role of all teachers serving in the middle school, on the sole condition that they are in possession of the qualification. A large amnesty, which after about forty years (from 1923 onwards) interrupted the inflexible recruitment mechanism (qualification plus competition), developed by Minister Gentile, to guarantee the best teachers in the Italian school.

In fact, the 1966 measure not only represented a striking one vulnus of the constitutional principle, according to which all access to public jobs is regulated by competition, but also the beginning of an uncertain and irregular multiplication of initiatives aimed at accommodating generations of precarious teachers interested in the quality of education. to guarantee a cultural level. at the professional level.

Of course, the “Bellisario Law” was not an absolute novelty. Since the early days of the school, which was governed by Casati law, there have been recruitments to get jobs in certain categories of teachers for patriotic merit (Garibaldians were often employed as gymnastics teachers, then came the ex- Fighters who dared in others), but against this bad habit the Gentilian Rigure had to give up without giving up.

There is no room for traceability of further interventions on Legis which followed after 1966 at a frenetic pace: art. 17 n. 477/1973, Law n. 468/1978, Law n. 270/1982, Law n. 326/1984, etc., measures that were involved with the contextual reduction of the ordinary competitions and then with the start of the permanent ranking. Gradually, the school became the main employer of Italian graduates, without much regard for the human and professional qualities of the people employed. Not only that: the teaching profession has gradually ceased to be a “first choice”, often leading to a temporary arrangement.

Finally, with the advent of the new century, it seemed that the situation got a little more serious with the opening of the specialization schools, but the contrasts between qualified historians and “Sissini”, the later oppression of the schools, and their replacement with Internship active training courses (TFA) and to pursue the Special Enabling Paths (PAS), the FIT provided by the “Buona Scuola” and finally the further facilitations of recent years (24 CFU) have the recruitment of teachers and the Past brought back. . Elo the Pnr sets a high school, a world record: five different types of recruitment methods in just under 20 years.

This summary reconstruction offers three types of reflections. The first can be summarized in the formula “quantity over quality”. If entry into the role without competition could exceptionally solve the problems of the 1960s middle school, its implementation through successive charges of “precarious” school exposed to obvious risks to assemble. oves et boves et universa Schof, a hypothesis that simple common sense should be advised. No football team, let alone the most timid one, puts anyone who does not prove to play under contract. In the last half century, as everyone knows, the need to absorb unemployment and intellectual precariousness has dispelled any other reasonable consideration. In some cases, the same managers were hired with facilitated competitions. No government has the strength – behind the union pressure and the interest of the The lobby Politics interested in protecting the clients of the precarious – pursuing a serious policy capable of combining initial training and recruitment. The only necessity was to stay in the rankings, the length of which replaced all merit criteria.

When – second reflection – the specialization schools (and the Bachelor of Science in Primary School, provided for by the delegated decree of 1974!) Were launched, the conditions were set to turn the tide. Schools have taken a qualitative leap compared to the “do it yourself” of the past, with the despair of theoretical insights and practical exercises. Not all experiences – one has to admit – were free from criticism and some improvisations, also due to the lack of qualified teachers, in the end generated the suspicion that the universities were not up to the task and that it was up to the school true. train future teachers. But instead of unhappily liquidating schools, it was enough to intervene on aspects that present critical issues and improve the relationship between academic study and school experience. “Jumps” from the postgraduate schools of 2008 are basically back to the disruption of the past, with sudden changes in rules and norms and great disorientation of the aspirants to become a professor.

Third observation. It is therefore urgent to define on an stable basis an organic and lasting initial training system, which is alternately linked to repetitive processes of updates in the service. The competitions are regularly planned and organized on a local basis according to the real needs of the schools and without a quiz lottery. It is unacceptable that – as has happened in recent years – young graduates are not able to plan for their future and are constantly exposed to change.

It insists on a provision that re-launches initial training and recruitment. The good news is that what is decided will no longer be changed by a future minister. Stability is the first guarantee of quality and a primary condition for working to improve schools, thanks to the preparation of Main actors of the school scene.

– – – –

We need your input to provide you with further quality and independent information.



Leave a Comment