Landscape architects in Naples in the 19th century. Themes and Styles

The Napillipo School was born in Naples in 1820 on the initiative of the Dutch painter Pitloo to change the landscape painting. The themes, the styles.

Do Posillipo School it was a painting experience of a group of Artists gather in Naples, from the second decade of the 19th century, mainly dedicated to landscape painting, which is practiced outdoors. The school was inaugurated by a Dutch painter Anton Sminck of Pitloo who drove it until 1837, before passing on to his Neapolitan Students Rice Hyacinth. It represents an important moment for local Neapolitan and Italian painting, in a broader European context, celebrating the landscape genre through its ideal and historical representation.

Inspired by the beauty of the landscape and Neapolitan customs, Pitloo was able to capture and pass on to students. Atmospheric values ​​of nature confirm a personal, quick brush stroke with bright spots. The giant, as a representative of a family of painters who gathered around Pitloo, inherited his inspiration and used the stain in thereal impressionRender- and his works there Movement an den easilythe vivacity an den typically Neapolitan. The local natural elementsthe Architectures ze Residentshas exerted a strong attraction on at least two generations of painters.

Anton Sminck van Pitloo, Baia Castle (1830; oil on canvas, 24 x 34 cm; Sorrento, Museo Correale)
Anton Sminck van Pitloo, Castel dell'Ovo of the beach (circa 1820-1824; oil on canvas; Rome, National Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art)
Anton Sminck van Pitloo, Castel dell’Ovo from the beach (C.1820-1824; Oil on canvas; Rome, Galerie National d’Art Moderne et Contemporain)
Gabriele Smargiassi, The Golf of Pozzuoli da Baia (1841; Oil on canvas, 96.8 x 129.5 cm; Private collection)
Gabriele Smargiassi, The Gulf of Pozzuoli of Baia (1841; oil on canvas, 96.8 x 129.5 cm; private collection)
Salvatore Fergola, Notturno and Capri (c. 1843; oil on canvas, 106 x 131 cm; Naples, Museum and Real Bosco di Capodimonte)
Salvatore Fergola, Night in Capri (C.1843; Oil on canvas, 106 x 131 cm; Naples, Musée a Real Bosco di Capodimonte)

Origins and development of the Posillipo School

While in France Paris was the center of maximum attraction and the main attraction for 19th century artists, Italy was divided into many political and cultural environments and struggled to find an imagery that went beyond provincial borders. Napleswhich was a political and cultural center, where foreign painters also joined together, such as Stage of the Grand Tour and where a landscape painting tradition circulated as early as the seventeenth century and throughout the eighteenth century with a broad diffusion of tourist landscape painting, he experienced a productive moment with the School of Posillipo.

In 1816, the Dutch arrived in Rome Anton Sminck of Pitloo (Arnhem, 1790 – Naples, 1837) who cultivated his artistic interests in the city, found an ideal client and a fruitful stimulus for his work, so much so that he and 1820 a Private school for painting. Thus was born the Posillipo school, which was already widely accepted in the decade 1825-1835. It was so named because the observation of the city took place from the top of Posillipo, a hilly neighborhood that allowed for views with panoramic views.

Pitloo, with a personal interpretation of the landscape, painted pictures that were especially appreciated new generations of painters and this earned him the consideration of “one of the most brilliant artists of the time.” From 1822 he became professor at the Royal Institute of Fine Arts in Naples and established himself as an international artist. In fact, he has managed to establish contacts with the European art scene and with artists such as Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (Paris, 1796 – Paris, 1875), an important French landscape painter who was a forerunner and influential supporter in the 1820s Barbizon School. In response to the stylized and idealized representations of figures and landscapes of neoclassicism, most of the Barbizon artists of the 1930s came to the fore. Landscape painting in a naturalistic waycapture the scenarios they have honestly seen, make careful observations and mill outdoors faithfully reproduce the colors and shapes of the campaign. Corot, who visited Naples between 1817 and 1821 and 1828, exported on his Grand Tour the experiences he had living in Italy, which, as usual, included stops in the most important Italian art cities at the time.

At the same time, they spread throughout Europe in the first half of the 19th century Spirit of the painters of romance which draws their attention Nature an zu Outdoor Paintingand works based on the close observation of the landscape, the sky and the atmosphere, devoted to the description of the subjective reactionthe inner life with respect for the nature around.

Pitloo also became acquainted with the work of the most important English landscape painter of the time William Turner (Covent Garden, 1775 – Chelsea, 1851), present in Naples between 1819 and 1828, from which he captured the romantic moods, aimed at a free interpretation of nature, then transfused into the school education of Posillipo’s students. In addition to what may have been favorite places in the representation of the Neapolitan area, such as Mount Vesuvius, the excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum, the islands of the Gulf, the painters of Posillipo focused on the nature around the town and their bright Mediterranean atmosphere.

Many young artists belong to the Posillipo school, who were determined to become defenders of a renewed fortune in landscape painting, of which the most significant were: Achille Vianelli, Gabriele Smargiassi, Theodore Duclère, Salvatore Fergola such as Rice Hyacinth (Naples, 1806 – 1876), who, after Pitloo’s death, gradually took over the school for several years.

Giacinto was, like many other followers, one of the representatives of his family who visited and supported the activities in Posillipo. The artistic enthusiasm had infected entire families, such as the “Carelli” with her father Raffaele and the three sons Consalvo, Gabriele and Achille, the “Fergolas”, with the predecessor Luigi, the two sons Salvatore and Alessandro, and Francesco, son of Salvatore; the “Witting” with Teodoro, engraver, and his son Gustavo and precisely the “Gigante” with Gaetano, Giacinto’s father who becomes leader, Emilia, Achille and Ercole.

In what is considered to be the second phase of the school, visions and styles have changed since the 1940s, also in relation to the new realistic trends – which were introduced in Naples mainly by the brothers. Filippo and Giuseppe Palizzi – and at the request of the client, who kept the lyric of the painting made in Posilippo. Until a progressive exhaustion of expressive vitality, between 1850 and 1860. From 1851 Giacinto Gigante was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Naples, towards an institutional career, which he exhibited in 1867 and 1869. universal led by Paris. .

Giacinto Gigante, seen Naples of Conocchia (1844; oil on canvas, 53)
Ris Hyazinth, Naples seen from Conocchia (1844; oil on canvas, 53 79 cm; private collection)
Giacinto Gigante, Chapel of San Gennaro al duomo during the Blood Wonder (1863; Watercolor; Naples, Museum and Real Bosco di Capodimonte)
Ris Hyazinth, Chapel of San Gennaro al Duomo during the blood miracle (1863; Watercolor; Naples, Museum and Real Bosco di Capodimonte)
Giacinto Gigante, Sunset in Caserta (1857; Watercolor; Naples, National Museum of San Martino)

Themes and styles of the exponents of the Posillipo School

Pitloo’s stylistic novelty was the observation of the life of nature and the rendering of introductions transient effects of light and color from the drawing, “En plein air” from preliminary sketches, as the Barbizon school in France experimented. The artist introduced the technique of Oil painting on paper scanned (mounted on canvas or cardboard), as Corot experimented. The guiding idea was to come to the completion of the image without a second thought, and thus a way of grasping the variability of light, to abandon the use of easel. Until the end of the 1920s, his interpretation of the landscape was still classical, before devoting himself to the search for atmospheric rendering (Baia Castle, 1830). So even the first production of the Posillipo school was more traditional, on a broad, perspective and scenographic point of view, with a raised bird’s eye view.

Over the years, Pitloo abandoned the classicist style of Vedutism to arrive at a crucial lyrical reproduction of the naturalistic date, as understood by contemporary romantic painters, for the personal suggestions derived from direct observation of the places (Castel dell’Ovo from the beach, around 1820-1824). After his death from a cholera epidemic, the Giant student became the most original interpreter of poetry, which d emotional component of the landscape image, certainly influenced by Turner. Gigante achieves updated stylistic results with respect to European painting, emancipating Neapolitan landscape painting.

With his practice he changed the perspective from which the painters looked at the subjects, the artist created a favorite narrow field of view, insights and with the choice also to represent the people in the act of everyday actions. The Landscape an den it costs (Gabriele Smargiassi, The Gulf of Pozzuoli of Baia, 1841; Ris Hyazinth, Sorrento Coast1842) an City of Lifewith constants Variations of recurring themes. The value of the work no longer lay in the nobility of the subject, but in its realization, in the painter’s personal reaction to the subject. Giant excelledWatercolor (Chapel of San Gennaro al Duomo during the blood miracle1863) an Representations of pure color (Sunset in Caserta1857) which only later became common in art with Impressionism.

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