In Germany, the countries are fighting for qualified teachers. And many choose part-time. From education to salaries: the German system

Teacher access, salary and pension and Germany is the responsibility of Countries. In general the Bavaria it is the most rigid: you must first choose which school you want the qualification, for example elementary school or high school. Elsewhere, the unitary school model is more widespread (comprehensive school) and only those Age range for which you want to be activated. Candidates used to exceed the needs, but for years Lack of qualified teachers and the countries if there argue. Overburdened with bureaucratic tasks that take time away from the preparation of Lessonsmany teachers then choose to work alone part time. The German teachers’ association estimates that up to 40 thousand teachers. Full-time would be more attractive without leaving strictly educational tasks to other staff, and in a more equipped work environment, certainly not the organization of the Digitization of courses. So they are constantly taking risks Lessons jumpCurricular offers cancelled, classes reunited.

Typical training The classic way to become a teacher is primarily a Teaching studio, university degree, but also music or art, which are aimed at teaching, ending with the first state exam. In some countries it is in one Bachelor of Education (6 semesters) plus a Master of Education (4 semesters) with different school days. Most universities and even art and sports schools, as well as the pedagogical faculties, have now adapted to courses of this type: they are internationally recognized qualifications that facilitate changes in the training path. Anna Klöpper on the taz Moreover, he points out that it would only be useful in Berlin 2000 undergraduate students and instead of being there only 900 approximately.

First state exam Those who teach in private schools, for adults only, in companies, extracurricular teaching centers such as science centers, museums or national parks, can also be satisfied with only. first state examor from the Master’s in the Länder, such as in North Rhine-Westphaliawhere it is recognized as equivalent.

Internship and second state exam To teach in a public school, but a Internship (Referendariat or Vorbereitingsdienst) in an educational institution that lasts fromthe 12 months of Mecklenburg-Pomerania and Brandenburg ai 24 of Bavaria and Thuringia. The trainee will be with one Fellow expert and also follows educational seminars, also in other subjects and schools. He can only learn autonomously after a while (in a Bavarian gymnasium, for example from the sixth month), but it is not rare that for defects the staff first find themselves alone in front of the classrooms. At this stage you can too continue to qualify for teaching bilingual in their own discipline. Regarding the maximum that can pass from the end of the master’s to request a place for an internship from the ministry or the district government, it is regulated by the Länder. For example, in North Rhine-Westphalia you do not lose, but after five years it is necessary for one Verification interview. Therefore, a second qualifying state exam is still required as a rule.

Alternative routes Due to the lack of teachers there are opportunities for transverse access for those who did not take the first state exam, but still the university in a subject for which it is lacking teachers and can prove to enough knowledge even in a second discipline. Especially the teachers in the scientific faculties marked with the initials MINT (mathematics, computing, science and technology) are in great demand, as well as teachers with a migration background, to work with the school users of increasingly multiform. The conditions are regulated by the individual countries. For example, in Bavaria the relevant ministry has so-called extraordinary measures (Special measures) which leads to an internship and second state exam. In Berlin, on the other hand, a QMastery (Quereinstiegstudiengang), with a scholarship of 500 euros gross per month, to offer didactic skills in the subject competence, i.e. a Master of Education, which gives access to the Referendaryafter a commitment to remain in the country as a teacher for three years.
To cover the shortage of teachers, the limits are now increasing minimum roof of hours in temporary contracts, cancel the sabbatical year, or impose on the teachers who are already active to cover an hour more a week to recover it only when they were reinforced the didactic frameworks. Ryan Plocher on the Time he hoped that in the future we would prefer to be teachers with preparation only in one subject, or foreign colleagues with knowledge of German at level C1 and not C2, as well as that in support schools where there are two teachers, one can be restored to full teaching replace it with a master’s student.

Access to the internship The country’s Ministry of Education (Kultusministerium) or the relevant district (Regierungsbezirk) distributes the internship posts. In Bavaria, to give a concrete example, the referendar lasts for the first 12 months 8 hours of lessons per week, 9 hours of classroom practice with another teacher, 1 hour as an auditor and 10 as a seminar, in the second year 15 hours of lessons per week in their own as in other subjects, 3 hours as an auditor and again 10 hours of seminars. Then it claims it second state exam. At the end of the training in some states, such as the above-mentioned Bavaria, there is one public officials (officials), and others, such as BerlinWe simply stay away from it Employees (Employees in the public service). A common problem is that the internship often ends earlier Summer Holidays and hire only with the beginning of the school year, which implies weeks of unemployment.

Premise To enter in the role in a public school it must be done ask the ministryor for community schools atCity administration. If there are no places for your topic, you can enter one waiting listso lists are also made from which the state schools can draw for a defects unexpected events. In Bavaria, for example, they should become teachers in the gymnasium this September 1,796 questions, 1,496 received the offer of a place and 1,173 accepted it. Forecasts are made about the needs up to ten years in advance and a peak is estimated in 2025 with 2,940 seats needed. With that Augsburger Allgemeine he emphasized that at the beginning of the school year they were only absent in Augsburg 50 Directors of the school classes. In North Rhine-Westphalia, on the other hand, it is the same schools that publish the lists of vacant posts and select the candidates, then the teachers are hired from one of the five districts.

salaries An intern is already paid on average 1,100 and 1,300 euros gross per monthas an official then has a Paymenta recognition for taking up an office (ie in Bavaria), otherwise a Salary (as in Berlin). The extent depends on the career progression provided for in the individual countries, according to the age of service and the type of school. As an official, the treatment is more secure, despite the same length of study, but a primary school teacher starts at level A12, a secondary school teacher at level A13, which implies over 500 euros more gross per month. On the other hand, teachers employed as employees can be estimated at about 25% of the total. As a result of the lack of staff, while they enjoy less security, they earn more and more. However, the differences in wages must also be compared with the cost of living in the different countries.
As an example, according to the data of July 2022 collected by the Education and Science Uniona secondary school teacher receives first salary roughly in between €4,134.38 gross per month in Mecklenburg-Pomerania in the 4,999.30 in Bavaria. In the same category but at the end of their career respectively between 5,558.01 in the first country e 5,894.18 in the second (the net salary data assume a tax class I who has no children, excluding church taxes, but a car contribution of 250 euros). The gap is therefore large. The site kununu.com summarizes it from an average gross salary for a primary school teacher of €58,164, to a gross salary for a high school teacher of €64,489 to €88,116 for a dean (category A16).
In the case of a collective agreement of a private type – provided that the salary depends on the conditions in the school – only as a guide, the high school teacher receives 49,100 euros per year gross (the difference is between 33,100 in the first three years). and 77,800 euros after ten years of experience). In Berlin, where someone was only employed with a contract under private law (ie no civil servant), the average gross salary is 51,800 euros, in Saxony it drops to around 44,900 euros.

Pension Officials have a Pensionwho works in the public service with a private contract one Retirement pension. It is not just a lexical difference: an official in Munich usually goes a 67 years oldan employee in Berlin instead of one 65; a threshold that was initially only granted by 45 years of service. It also applies to early retirement: usually only at the end of the age of 63 and in case of serious disability at the age of 60 (but the minimums differ, from 64 in Bavaria to 60 in Lower Saxony) for a civil servant; if there is an agreement with the employer, an employee is already at the end of 55 years. Officials are then required three years to communicate in writing to the authority that hired them if they are still working, for example through private hours. On the other hand, one is an official for life and therefore one can theoretically be one forever remember in service. For this reason, if you have a request to stay there, it can only be refused in exceptional cases, otherwise it will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. There maximum pension, after 40 years of work, it covers the 71.75% of the gross salary of the last two years, 3.6% have been deducted less each year (with a variable ceiling if it is for incapacity). The treatment in old age with private law contracts is instead calculated using a points system that is updated every year in July, and there is an integration that brings it closer to the retirement of officials (Additional provision in the form of a company pension).

Leave a Comment