There is a deliberate ambiguous use of the terms used for the different types of this modality. It is no coincidence: it serves to make a school model hegemonic to the needs of businesses. Let’s try to clarify
One of the most delicate aspects of addressing the issue of the relationship between education, training and work is the deliberate ambiguous and distorted use of words that indicate regulatory or applied devices that specifically address this relationship. How easy it is to imagine you are terminological confusion it is by no means the daughter of incompetence or inexperience, but is fully part of the attempt to make a school model hegemon that loses the connotations of a democratic, social and cultural place to conform to the needs and organizational models of to bend the business. So let’s try to make a little order.
It is a didactic tool for the realization of the study paths of the second degree. It does not represent an employment contract. The related paths are designed, implemented, verified and evaluated below the responsibility of the educational institution o training, on the basis of specific agreements with companies, chambers of commerce, public and private entities, etc. Law 107/15 made ASL mandatory in the three years of high school by identifying a certain number of hours: 200 for high school, 400 for technicians and professionals, allocation 100 million euros per year for the creation of courses.
The 2019 budget law changed the name (now Pathways for Transversal Skills and Orientation, Pcto), reduced the number of compulsory hours, 90 hours for high schools, 150 for technicians and 210 for professionals, reducing funding to just under 43 Millions. Despite these changes, the value reference framework has not changed and for this reason we continue repeat the demands which we have been doing for years:
- as opposed to the obligation and the precise quantification of the hours and alternation pcto;
- the paths must not represent a useful screen and disguise working relationships free subordination or parasubordinate;
- Pcto’s must remain aeducational opportunity fully committed and valued in the study paths visited by female and male students;
- Host topics need to be chosen that usually arrange one lifelong learning for its employees;
- the Students should not be substituted for professional positions within the host organization.
Alternation should not be confused either with learning (see below), or with continuous training of workers, in order to improve the level of qualification and professional development of the people working. Due to the structural characteristics and the closest personal relationship of the student with the work context, the alternation between internship and internship differs.
Internships and internships
Internships and internships, although often used as synonyms, actually indicate two types of experiences through which students, before the end of the school experience, make contact with the world of work. They can have different purposes (eg orientation, training, etc.), a variable duration (from the company visit of one day to an internship of three or four weeks), another place in the annual training course (at the beginning of the ‘. School year, during the course or at the end of the course, during teaching breaks, etc.), or multi-year, with reference to the structure of the course (eg second two-year period, fifth year, etc.). ).
The Stagepreferably activated on the basis of an agreement between a school and a company, consists of spending some time in a working reality, in order to verify, integrate and redesign what has been learned in the classroom and / or in the laboratory.
The Stage – that according to institutional law n. 196/1997 differs in training internship and orientation internships – it is widely used as an opportunity for temporary insertion into the world of work and aims to gain new skills and practical experience that favor the professional and personal growth of the intern.
It is a “permanent employment contract for the education and employment of young people”. The apprenticeship contract is divided into the following types:
a) apprenticeship for professional qualification and diploma, upper secondary diploma and high technical specialization certificate;
b) vocational training;
c) Advanced education and research learning.
The young person who has a real individual employment contract is obligated perform normal working hours provided for in the national collective agreement for the sector, consists of internal training, external training and actual “working hours”. The didactic organization of internship training is divided into periods of internal and external training. By “internal training” and “external training” we mean the formal apprenticeships that take place in the workplace and in the training institute respectively.
Within the current legal framework, the teaching place should not (should) be confused with the change between school and work. In fact, alternation is not an employment contract and the relative paths are designed, implemented, verified and evaluated under the responsibility of the educational institution.
The dual system is a learning method based on the alternation of training moments “in the classroom” (in a training institute) and moments of practical training and “work contexts” (in a company / organization) and was introduced organically by Law Decree 81. / 15 and by law 107/15 and related regulations and implementation. There are three tools for implementing this learning model:
- enhanced varietywith practical application periods of not less than 400 hours per year (of 14 years);
- the simulated training company, or first modalities of realizing the alternative through the creation of a virtual company, animated by the students of a class that carries out a market activity and refers to a real company (so-called tutor or sponsor company), which provides the reference model for and any phase or business cycle to be simulated. This training modality also provides for practical application periods of not less than 400 hours per year;
- first level learning (or education / dual learning according to Article 43 of Legislative Decree 81/2015) which allows – on the one hand – the attainment of a qualification (generally the qualification and the professional diploma) and – on the other – the direct acquisition of work experience (of 15 years).
The dual system is heavily funded as part of the vocational training and education courses run by the vocational training centers. The FLC and the CGIL have asked for their cancellation and in any case for their placement after 18 yearsalso in view of the limited number of participants, who are mostly present in the northeast of the country.
(Luigi Caramia, National Secretary of Flc Cgil)