Berlinguer: “The job of a teacher is becoming more and more difficult, but there are new extraordinary opportunities. Its social function must be enhanced.” [VIDEO]

On January 27, Orizzonte Scuola hosted former Education Minister Luigi Berlinguer. An important debate opportunity for the entire school community.

The right to education has been created to give everyone access to education and training, to pave the way for mass education. Today, attention is focused on the right to learning, intended as a guarantee for the student of inclusion in the education system and of the success of the training path. Nevertheless, the data obtained from the surveys conducted by Invalsi provide about the drop-out rate, implicitly and explicitly, as well as about the impact of the socio-economic-cultural factor of the families of origin of the students in the education. a scenario characterized by strong inhomogeneity and inequality. However, one of the aims of a school system is to promote equality in school and social inclusion.

In this sense, social inequalities are also expressed through the manifestation of school inequalities, and in terms of learning opportunities, today, scandalously still conditioned by the socio-economic conditions of increase. One of the aims of the education and training system, in line with European demands in this sense, is precisely to guarantee equal opportunities and training courses. Today, the inequalities are so marked that the continuation of education is conditioned for the less beloved children, who often give up or “street” the school system. The lack of guarantee of school and social inclusion thus marks the future path of children with a socio-economic disadvantage, and does not allow them full participation in the social, economic and productive life of the knowledge society in which the capital is accurate. . Human. Students who start with a disadvantage, but want to integrate into the social and productive fabric of struggle and struggle, I believe that the school system must work to reduce this gap of opportunities and inequality, so that everyone is guaranteed and realized the right to learning to see. The school question is strongly linked to the social question, the abandonment and withdrawal of children from school systems will significantly increase the risk of social marginalization of the same. In a knowledge-based economy, a society that excludes some will lose resources and wealth in the sense of human capital, allowing social injustice to intensify, with a general loss of resources and potential.

The history of pedagogy of the 19th century underlined the value of the mother figure as the first and best educator, reminiscent only of Froebel or Pestalozzi. And in fact, until a few decades ago, the mother was the moral and pedagogical reference figure who, who accompanied and pursued her children on their educational and educational paths, monitored their development, as an indispensable pivot for realization and realization. acted. Continuation of their studies. The fundamental social function of the mother figure also made it possible for children from very poor families to have learning opportunities and even access to higher education levels, in a spirit of sacrifice to encourage the opportunity to perhaps take the social lift, which was thought. are beyond your reach. Seriously, today, in a historic moment in which social inequalities have unfortunately increased paradoxically, too many burdens and responsibilities often fall on the female figure.

Political decision-makers have the moral obligation to deal with social exclusion from the school context as well, to offer concrete help and the possibility of greater acceptance for all children and adolescents with less opportunity, even in the afternoon, to care for them . Training Wee. Social loneliness must be compensated by a more supportive and articulate system.

Today, the right to education is translated into the right to learn. This fundamental step had to be guaranteed by the reform of school autonomy (Law No 59 of 1997), created to undermine an extremely pyramidal and centralist organization of the public administration, including schools, and to destroy schools enable to become autonomous training centers.and equity. . However, this revolutionary reform probably encountered a cultural and administrative ground that was not yet ready and quite resistant, until the initial great push then gradually took place. It is known that every reform in Italy encounters a certain degree of resistance; however, the subject of school autonomy was and remains the greatest opportunity for schools to define themselves and to promote didactic innovation.

The law on autonomy had a deflagulating incipient: “Schools are autonomous”.

A statement that had a revolutionary meaning, supported by a strong reformist pressure, also by the European abortion, which unfortunately was not fully expressed, and in reality remains a bit incomplete.

“Schools must want to be autonomous because they have a right!”

The impetus that now serves to restart the autonomy process machine must come from the teaching staff, as autonomy improves and enables the promotion of didactic and methodological innovation. The emphasis of the whole autonomous process is represented by learning, which today seems necessary to innovate more participatory and engaging methodologies. The didactic model of knowledge transfer is no longer suitable for fostering the range of skills that young people need to put into the social and productive fabric. Teachers, bodies and souls of schools, are now more than ever called upon to innovate and to put the methodological question at the heart of the whole learning / learning process. Promoting the love of knowledge is the essential viaticum to support training courses, a committed method of teaching / learning will stimulate curiosity and motivation in students, allowing them to love what they are learning.

Until now, the learning function was focused solely on the learning process, intended as a knowledge transfer, today the focus shifts to the learning process and, vis-à-vis all knowledge and scientific research that provides evidence of how it takes place, it is necessary to consider it to build paths and paths that are more appropriate to develop the potential of each student.

Every student is the bearer of wealth and diversity, represents a resource that needs to be strengthened so that he can make his contribution to the productive and social world. The school population today is extremely complex and heterogeneous and requires the multifaceted efforts of the teacher they encounter, who must have a much better equipped “toolbox” than in the past. The teacher is now called upon to involve, motivate and intrigue, to ensure that the pedagogical relationship supports a living and non-inert knowledge, to encourage the growth and expression of the potential of each student.

“The teacher’s work is certainly becoming richer but also more complex, especially in this period of the Covid 19 pandemic, in the past it was simpler and more traditional, today new needs have arisen but also new extraordinary possibilities, including the entry of technology into the education scene “.

The technology that is invading our lives must be embedded in teaching practice and in school curricula, in the idea that it represents an opportunity to improve learning methods that are multiple and heterogeneous, with dubious benefits both cognitive and social, when the paths for the implementation of technologies in education are adequately designed. No one should be left behind. Digital is a language that can not be excluded from the school world, it must be welcomed and exploited in its potential, in the awareness that job opportunities are now moving in that world as well.

The role of the teacher in today’s society has thus become much more complex, extremely far from the teacher who stood on the platform of the chair and was “taught”, an important social function that has the responsibility, the competent citizens of tomorrow to train and therefore it must be adequately appreciated and supported. Families need to be constructive interlocutors, participate in educational dialogue and, in a way, contribute to the development of their children’s learning pathways.

Curated by Angela Ferraro, Olga Naples and Antonio Fundarò.

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