At least the ius scholae

Stefano Iucci

In Germany, the ius soli was introduced in 2001: who were born in Germany are German. Point. A number of studies conducted on this and other European cases have undoubtedly shown that the acquisition of nationality has a positive impact on minors (lower dropout rates, better outcomes, more propensity to study further) and on d ‘Society as a whole – eg the labor market – but more generally for the cohesion and inclusion it produces.

Without forgetting, of course, the most sensational aspect: and that is the unlawful injustice which shows that minors grow up close to their peers in every way the same as they do in class, but “different” and discriminated against when they leave a school where they have been Italians for years: the same studies, the same teachers, the same tests, even if often not the same qualities.

While in Italy there is still a lack of common sensitivity to the ius soli, among the political forces (but not in society according to at least many polls, including those of the Osservatorio Futura), a great opportunity has presented itself in recent weeks. One is actually being debated in the House Proposed law on the ius scholae affecting an audience of 900,000 foreign minors, 80% of whom, it should be remembered, are second-generation: that is, they were born in Italy, but not Italians.

The ius scholae is much smaller than the ius soli, but his approval would be relevant. From the National Conference on Immigration, which has been held in recent days, the Secretary General of the CGIL, Maurizio LandiniEmphasizes the importance of a law that can “constitute a first important step for the reform of citizenship and finally give young people born in Italy or who came as children the right to be legitimately recognized as Italian and Italian to be given “.

The bill signed by 5-star MP Giuseppe Brescia, despite a split in the majority – with the Lega and part of Forza Italia on the barricades – has been dismissed by the Constitutional Commission and aims to change the law on citizenship. back to 1992 and that says it all a foreign minor has to wait 18 years to become Italian; if the new rule passes, for those born in Italy, or who arrived there before the age of 12, “will be sufficient” to reside legally and without interruption in our country and to have regularly participated in institutions for a five-year period. on the national education system or three- or four-year education and training courses to attain a professional qualification. It is not an automatic process: it will be the parents, provided they both live in Italy, who have to make a “declaration of intent” until the son or daughter reaches the age of majority. This would be a change of pace for those of us who have nationality in terms of the most restrictive laws in Europe.

In short, a moderate rule that photographs a reality under the eyes of everyone. A simple common sense adjustment who instead have to succumb to the worst resistance attack with retro and foreign ideologies that have led to 728 amendments, some of which have been ridiculed: oral exams, knowledge of parties, sagas, culinary traditions or even meritocratic demands should determine. if citizenship were a reward given only to the best.

Calza, Flc: it’s not the best, but let’s vote for it
According to the latest report from the Ministry of Education, refers to the school year 2019-2020, students with foreign citizenship in Italy are 876,801: 10.3% of the total population in school. two-thirds of them (573,845) are second-generationa proportion which increases to 80% in nursery school, while it is 75% in primary school, 62% in high school and 40% in high school.

In short, the numbers are impressive. “Our hope is that this law will pass soon“It is true that those who grew up in the national school system have the opportunity to become Italian citizens.” Inclusion in active participation in the community is, it creates a sense of disability and awareness of its role in building shared well-being, as well as of course helps many girls and boys to remove discomfort ”.

An inconvenience that often results a great inequality. While in Italy early school turnover in 2021 will average 13.1%, among students with non-Italian citizenship it will reach 35.4%. “There are many explanations – Calza commented – but it is clear that, as the German example shows, the acquisition of citizenship is one of the key factors in raising the level of education and limiting abandonment.”

For the trade unions too, the law would strengthen the role of the school “Thus, as recognized as an institution, it guarantees equal opportunities.” Of course, the director of the Flc CGIL agrees, it is still not enough: “I believe that the two principles that underline the ius soli and the ius scholae must be interpenetrated. In other words, the right to citizenship must be recognized both to those born in Italy and to those who, although not born there, study there.

Biancuzzi, Student Network: No more discrimination
Students are on the same wavelength. Which underscores how the lack of citizenship actually creates difficulties for students even in the context of school life. “For example, on educational trips they can not go abroad Visit Tommaso Biancuzzi, Coordinator of the Network of Middle Students -. It may seem silly, but it is not: travel is a unifying factor, of inclusion. Not participating indicates a distance from the class you grew up with and confirms that you are not on an equal footing with others. ”

Even for students, the proposal is “of civility and of common sense”, even though it has many limits, and therefore needs to be approved quickly. After all, Biancuzzi concludes, “what makes you more Italian than studying here and sharing a student life with everyone else”?

Lorenzoni: Even the teachers in the field
But how likely is it that the law will pass before the end of the legislature? For Franco Lorenzoni, teacher and founder of the Casa Laboratorio Cenci, there is a risk that it will come to an end as with the ius culturae, which was sunk at the end of the last legislature. “For this – he tells us – it is important that the law is passed directly in the Chamber: if there is now a chance that the trial in the Senate will be completed before the dissolution of the Chambers. The blackmail of the league, which threatens to leave the government, is wrong because it is a parliamentary initiative, so much so that Draghi has pulled himself out. There is a consensus in the country, but unfortunately, as is often the case, politics are moving in a different direction.

For Lorenzoni, too, the ius scholae is a “compromise to the detriment,” but it is important “because it paves the way for a right that has been denied for decades, something of enormous gravity, because those who teach or educate know that the 900,000 Minors who do not have citizenship, they suffer from a few privates: they live conditioned by what happens to their families, which makes it even more difficult to grow up, which is already full of insecurities in a period of great youth emerging from the pandemic. the War “.

“Everyone with a migratory background – the teacher adds – suffers from a number of factors. Citizens’ deprivation leads to poverty, language difficulties, inclusion deficits, because even though in many cases the school does a good job, it’s right. , Ghetto schools and classes still exist which represent a major problem, because it is precisely cultural inhomogeneity that represents an important growth factor ”.

Lorenzoni therefore calls on the educational community to take a step forward. “My appeal – he concludes – is that teachers should pay close attention to this issue in September: not to do propaganda that we do not like, but because the work of the school is the real problem of the To attack people “.

And what is more real and reasonable than that Fight to fall the invisible barriers that girls and boys separate, girls and boys who spend the most important years of their lives side by side?


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